may suggest that some products are less harmful than others; and. BMJ Open. McNeill A, Gravely S, Hitchman SC, Bauld L, Hammond D, Hartmann-Boyce J. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.  |  HHS Evaluating the impact of introducing standardized packaging with larger health-warning labels in England: findings from adult smokers within the EUREST-PLUS ITC Europe Surveys. -, Freeman, B., Chapman, S. & Rimmer, M. The case for the plain packaging of tobacco products. A small number of smokers also actively concealed their packs.11 HHS Methods: Rootman, I., & Flay. The TMA has used has several variations of smuggling and counterfeit arguments against plain packaging including: “A counterfeiters’ charter“ In September 2008, Imperial Tobacco told the UK’s DH that the introduction of plain packaging “could be described as a ‘Counterfeiter’s Charter”. However, data analysed in the literature review suggest that exposure to plain packaging increases intention to quit amongst exposed individuals, increases negative attitudes to both smoking and starting smoking. 2016 Mar 21;6(3):e010391. Public Health 106, 315–322 (1992). 2017 Apr 20;108(1):e98-e100. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use. To discourage such substitution and to help the policy achieve its intended outcomes, policymakers should consider implementing auxiliary measures, such as taxes or price floors. A systematic review of the perceptions of adolescents on graphic health warnings and plain packaging of cigarettes. A systematic review of quantitative studies. Author information: (1)Center for Global Tobacco Control, Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Mass., USA Although plain packaging has certain core elements, implementation may take slightly different forms in different jurisdictions.  |  This site needs JavaScript to work properly. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons. The Tobacco Plain Packaging Act stated that its intention was to improve public health by discouraging smoking through the reduction of the appeal of tobacco products. Plain packaging has been in the limelight ever since Australia passed its controversial plain packaging legislation. Perceptions and impact of plain packaging of tobacco products in low and middle income countries, middle to upper income countries and low-income settings in high-income countries: a systematic review of the literature. B. Immediate effects of plain packaging health warnings on quitting intention and potential mediators: Results from two ecological momentary assessment studies. eCollection 2015. Effectiveness of text versus pictorial health warning labels and predictors of support for plain packaging of tobacco products within the European Union. Here we examine the effectiveness of Australia's plain packaging law, which coincided with a change in graphic and text health warnings, by using nationally indicative data 5 years post implementation. First, plain packaging enhances the effectiveness of health warnings by increasing their noticeability, recall, and believability. The expected impacts of plain packaging for tobacco are, however, broader in scope than this study was capable of considering. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. NIH Background We assessed whether the Australian plain packs with larger graphic health warnings (GHWs) achieved three specific objectives of reducing the appeal of tobacco, increasing health warning effectiveness and reducing the ability of packaging to mislead about smoking harms. 37-40 For example, in one study, New Zealand youth were significantly more likely to recall health warnings when they were presented on plain packs compared to health warnings presented on "normal" branded packages.38  |  This variation may be due to different policy Can J Public Health. doi: 10.17269/cjph.108.5828. Here we examine the effectiveness of Australia's plain packaging law, which coincided with a change in graphic and text health warnings, by using nationally indicative data 5 years post implementation. Conclusion: Hardcastle SJ, Chan DC, Caudwell KM, Sultan S, Cranwell J, Chatzisarantis NL, Hagger MS. Int J Behav Med. The aim of this study is to critically appraise the evidence for the effectiveness of the plain packaging of tobacco products policy. Plain packaging works. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. We measured the effect of the law on smoking prevalence, tobacco expenditure, expenditure intensity and quantity of tobacco consumed, using New Zealand as a control country in a difference-in-differences research design. There are other impacts that we have flagged in the report as limitations of the study. Publisher Correction: The effectiveness of plain packaging in discouraging tobacco consumption in Australia. Australia was the first country in the world to introduce legislation for mandatory plain packaging for tobacco in 2012 under the Gillard Labor Government, and various studies have since proved the effectiveness of these measures in significantly reducing smoking rates. Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. wider community, to evaluate the efficiency and effectiveness of the tobacco plain packaging measure. Plain packaging reduced the attractiveness and other positive attributes of cigarette packaging, with darker colours found to be the most effective. USA.gov. As of May 2016, all tobacco products will have to be sold in drab, standardised packaging, instead of their current colourful, branded packs. While plain packaging may play a role in helping to make tobacco products less appealing to consumers, and thus may lead to some form of cessation, it comes at the price of business—for manufacturers, distributors and retailers. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/ckaa053. Nat Hum Behav. Epub 2014 Feb 25. plain packaging; product packaging; smoking; smoking cessation; tobacco. eCollection 2013. These other impacts include, but may not be limited to: The impact of plain packaging on tobacco consumers’ disposable incomes; and Background: 15. Personal tobacco pack display before and after the introduction of plain packaging with larger pictorial health warnings in Australia: an observational study of outdoor café strips. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0075919. Studies have revealed that plain packag-ing is found to be dull and to increase negative feelings about smoking. 2014 Apr;109(4):653-62. doi: 10.1111/add.12466. The review had been conducted by … Only indirect evidence of plain packaging's effectiveness was available until its release in Australia. NLM nicotine and tar levels). -. A total of 1923 studies were identified. 2 This is also usually accompanied with a graphic health warning. Tobacco plain packaging: Evidence based policy or public health advocacy? Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. -, Cunningham, R. & Kyle, K. The case for plain packaging. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) proposes that plain packaging would have three benefits: it would reduce the attractiveness and appeal of tobacco products, it would increase the noticeability and effectiveness of health warnings and messages, and it would reduce the use of design techniques that may mislead consumers about the harmfulness of tobacco products. Tobacco consumption fell 2.9% in quarter and 12.2% over the year, two years after plain-packaging legislation came into effect Control 27, 58–64 (2017). 28 2019 Jan 17;8(1):25. doi: 10.1186/s13643-018-0933-0. Psychol Addict Behav. It has been shown that the efficacy of GHW, in terms of tobacco cessation, can wane over time. 2013 Oct 16;8(10):e75919. Goodchild, M., Nargis, N. & Despaignet, E. T. Global economic cost of smoking-attributable diseases. Tob. Plain packaging aims to improve public health in Australia by reducing smoking rates. 2015 Jun;26(6):560-8. doi: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2015.03.004. Eur J Public Health. To sum up: plain packaging is effective to - increase the salience and effectiveness of warnings (more credible, more serious) - reduce the ability of packaging to mislead consumers on tobacco dangers Tob Use Insights. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010391. Why is plain packaging important? 26 However, the co‐introduction of enlarged GHW and plain packaging could negate this waning effect of GHW because data suggest plain packaging amplifies the benefits of GHW by increasing health‐warning recall. The Economic Impact of Smoking and of Reducing Smoking Prevalence: Review of Evidence. These research reports were used to help develop the graphic health warnings used on cigarette packaging and evaluate the effectiveness of the plain packaging design. A study on youth smoking: plain packaging, health warnings, event marketing and price reductions (University of Toronto, 1995). 27 This additional benefit of plain packaging is extended to non‐smokers, as well as smokers. evidence from Australia, which is consistent with the conclusion that plain packaging is an effective public health intervention. Aleyan S, Driezen P, McNeill A, McDermott M, Kahnert S, Kyriakos CN, Mons U, Fernández E, Trofor AC, Zatoński M, Demjén T, Katsaounou PA, Przewoźniak K, Balmford J, Filippidis FT, Fong GT, Vardavas CI, Hitchman SC; EUREST-PLUS Consortium. Keywords: WHO: Plain packaging works . When tobacco companies attempt to fight against plain packaging … NLM Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. The removal of all branding and promotions from tobacco products, known as 'plain packaging', is intended to decrease tobacco consumption. However, as smoking became less costly, smokers consumed more cigarettes. Plain packaging of tobacco products: evidence, design and implementation - This publication describes the purposes of implementing plain packaging as part of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control, the evidence base justifying the measure and developments at the country level, before offering recommendations to countries considering implementing plain packaging. Market research reports on tobacco plain packaging and graphic health warnings . Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. Results: After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, nine studies were included in the review. • Plain packaging is based on a consistent body of evidence9 • Plain packaging reduces the appeal of tobacco packaging and increases the effectiveness of graphic health warnings10 • Plain packaging has contributed to decreases in smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption11 • Plain packaging has not increased illicit trade12 Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Plain packaging, Ridgway elaborated, failed in achieving its supposed purpose because consumers, if they are dedicated smokers, purchase a legal product with the knowledge that its packaging – although it may be graphically “plain” – primarily served as a production for the cigarettes while at the same time still providing certain information (e.g. Plain packaging reduces the at-tractiveness of the product, particu-larly to young peo-ple and women. Larger and More Prominent Graphic Health Warnings on Plain-Packaged Tobacco Products and Avoidant Responses in Current Smokers: a Qualitative Study. Plain packaging recognises Australia’s commitment as a signatory to the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control[4] and has been widely applauded by health agencies both in Australia and internationally. Drovandi A, Teague PA, Glass B, Malau-Aduli B. Syst Rev. The removal of all branding and promotions from tobacco products, known as 'plain packaging', is intended to decrease tobacco consumption. We uncover a substitution effect that is robust to different specifications and control countries. Methods We compared responses from continuous cross-sectional telephone surveys of n=2176 cigarette … Get the latest public health information from CDC: https://www.coronavirus.gov, Get the latest research information from NIH: https://www.nih.gov/coronavirus, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. In assessing the impact of the measure, compliance costs to industry were estimated, for the purposes of this PIR, using the government’s Regulatory Burden Measurement (RBM) PLoS One. USA.gov. Quantitative and qualitative studies that evaluate attitudes towards smoking, starting smoking and quitting intentions when plain packaging use is compared with standard cigarette packaging use were included. If plain packaging will lead teens who experiment with cigarettes to look at the health warnings more, it's possible that this would translate in to them being less drawn to smoking. Control 4, 80–86 (1995). 6F 7. Plain packaging is an important demand reduction measure that reduces the attractiveness of tobacco products, restricts use of tobacco packaging as a form of tobacco advertising and promotion, limits misleading packaging and labeling, and increases the effectiveness of health warnings. Stead M, Moodie C, Angus K, Bauld L, McNeill A, Thomas J, Hastings G, Hinds K, O'Mara-Eves A, Kwan I, Purves RI, Bryce SL. However, data analysed in the literature review suggest that exposure to plain packaging increases intention to quit amongst exposed individuals, increases negative attitudes to both smoking and starting smoking. The overall quality of the data was variable but a significant number of the studies had major methodological flaws. 2016 Feb;23(1):94-101. doi: 10.1007/s12529-015-9487-x. 2020 Nov;4(11):1216. doi: 10.1038/s41562-020-00983-9.  |  COVID-19 is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. They consistently show that plain packaging decreases the attractiveness of both tobacco products and smoking, particu- NIH -, Beede, P. & Lawson, R. The effect of plain packages on the perception of cigarette health warnings. 2015 Jul 14;8:1-35. doi: 10.4137/TUI.S15628. 2017 Apr 27;4(4):CD011244. Plain packaging policy: Preventing industry innovations. Plain packaging discourages people from using tobacco by: reducing the appeal of tobacco products; making health warnings more effective; removing misleading information on … doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD011244.pub2. Zacher M, Bayly M, Brennan E, Dono J, Miller C, Durkin S, Scollo M, Wakefield M. Addiction. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? Plain Packaging Increases the Noticeability and Effectiveness of Health Warnings Plain Packaging Appears to be Having Effects on Smoker Attitudes and Behaviors Standardized or Plain Tobacco Packaging Scientific Evidence packs that were clearly visible on tables. The article 11 guidelines note that plain packaging ‘may increase the noticeability and effectiveness of health warnings and messages, prevent the package from detracting attention from them, and address industry package design techniques that may suggest that … The overall quality of the data was variable but a significant number of the studies had major methodological flaws. of plain packaging include: 1. reducing the attractiveness of tobacco products; 2. eliminating tobacco packaging as a form of advertising and promotion; 3. eliminating misleading information by addressing package design techniques that. 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